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Primaherbs terdiri dari dua bahan asas utama iaitu Terminalia Chebula /Kudukkai/Haritaki  dan Athospira Sp / Spirulina.

 

-Terminalia Chebula 266mg

-Athospira Sp 14mg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Terminalia Chebula Ritz (T.Chebula) merupakan ahli keluarga Combretaceae  yang digunakan secara meluas dalam berbagai cabang perubatan terutama Ayurved,Unani,Siddha dan Homeopathy.Secara traditional ia digunakan untuk merawat pelbagai penyakit sistemik.

 

Herba ini mendapat tumpuan para penyelidik kerana khasiat perubatannya yang mengandungi anti-oxidant,antibacterial,antifungal,anti-neoplastik,antiviral,antidiabetic,cardio protective,immunomodulatory  dan banyak lagi.Terdapat lebih 116 artikel/journal antarabangsa hasil penyelidikan berbagai Agensi di dunia.Namun fokus PrimaHerb adalah kepada bio-efficacy dan phyto-pharmacological yang akan diterjemahkan dalam bahasa lebih mudah untuk rujukan awam.

 

BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION

Kingdom : Plantae

Division : Magnoliophyta

Class : Magnoliopsida

Order : Myrtales

Genus : Terminalia

Species : Chebula

Binomial Name : Terminalia Chebula Retz

 

Pokok Terminalia Chebula berasal dari timur laut India dan wilayah Indio-Burma.Pokok kategori sederhana dengan ketinggian 30 Meter.Juga dinamakan sebagai Haritaki: ibu segala herba 'Abhya' (yang tidak takut kepada penyakit), 'pathya' (bermanfaat dalam semua penyakit) dan 'vyastha' (yang membantu meningkatkan jangka hayat manusia), Haritaki telah dinamakan dalam kesusasteraan Sanskrit kuno. Dikenali sebagai 'hararh' dan saintifik sebagai chebula terminalia, haritaki adalah salah satu herba yang paling lama diketahui manusia.

 

Pokok sederhana bersaiz daun luruh adalah didapati di sebahagian besar India dan ia adalah pulpa kering buahnya yang digunakan sebagai ubat.Buah Haritaki kebanyakannya astringen tetapi pada masa yang sama juga pahit, manis, pedas dan masam dan ringan, kering dan panas di kesan. Ia menyamankan Vata, pita dan kapha, ketiga-tiga doshas. Ayurveda telah menklasifikasikan tujuh jenis haritaki termasuk jenis yang terdiri daripada peringkat yang berbeza kematangan kepada spesies yang ditemui mengikut tempat-tempat yang pelbagai asal-usulnya. Haritaki terbukti memberi kesan  ciri-ciri penyembuhan yang luar biasa.

 

Teks-teks kuno menyifatkan ia menjadi lembut dan penyayang seperti seorang ibu.Dengan keselesaan dan kemudahan tetamu bertindak ke atas badan manusia, haritaki terutamanya pencernaan, yg mengeluarkan udara dan julap dalam alam semula jadi. Ia merangsang fungsi hati, membetulkan metabolisme, membunuh cacing usus dan mempunyai kesan tonik pada semua organ-organ badan, termasuk paru-paru, jantung dan otak. Haritaki juga terkenal dengan anti-radang, penyembuh luka, anti-obesiti, afrodisiak dan, di atas semua, sifat meremajakan.Dalam keberkesanan dan haritaki kegunaannya telah dianggap sebagai sama dengan amla. The Charak Samhita terkenal menyifatkan ia sebagai ubat pilihan kehilangan selera makan, masalah pencernaan, sembelit, aliran menaik perut gas, seriawan dan buasir. Selain menyembuhkan bengkak hati dan limpa, haritaki juga bermanfaat dalam batuk, asma, gangguan, anemia, penyakit kuning. resdung dan penyakit saluran kencing. Haritaki membantu melarutkan bengkak kelenjar dan juga mempunyai kesan menyihatkan dalam keadaan yang timbul akibat penggunaan yang berlebihan alkohol.

 

Haritaki adalah terapeutik ditetapkan sebagai langkah pencegahan dan pemulihan. Walaupun kontra ditunjukkan dalam kehamilan dan juga dilarang untuk penggunaan yang berpanjangan, teks Ayurveda menyifatkan kaedah yang berbeza untuk digunakan haritaki dalam musim yang berbeza dan penyakit. Semasa musim panas ia perlu diambil dengan jaggery. Dalam musim hujan, musim sejuk dan musim bunga, haritaki dinasihatkan diambil dengan garam batu, halia dan madu, masing-masing. Dalam penyakit yang timbul akibat vata vitiated, haritaki perlu diambil dengan minyak sapi, dalam penyakit pita dengan gula dan dalam masalah kapha ia ditandakan untuk digunakan dengan garam.Sebagai ubat rumah, haritaki paling baik digunakan untuk membersihkan usus. Jika ia digabungkan dengan kuantiti yang sama amla dan baherha kombinasi yang unik dicapai yang dikenali sebagai triphla.

 

Teks ayurveda menyifatkan beberapa kegunaan triphla, yang, lain dari yang dikaitkan dengan ciri-ciri anti-penuaan, juga diberikan secara berasingan atau sebagai adjung yang menyembuhkan beberapa penyakit.Terdapat banyak ubat-ubatan Ayurveda klasik di mana haritaki digunakan sebagai ketua bahan, Chitrak haritaki (resdung), vyaghri haritaki (asma), pathyadi qwath (migrain), abhyarishta (buasir), churna vaishvanar (penyakit sendi) mengetuai senarai luas formula klasik yang meletakkan haritaki di tempat tinggi dalam ayurveda. Selain ketersediaan mudah dan kos rendah, ia adalah tidak dapat ditandingi keberkesanan herba ini yang sehingga ke hari menjadikan penggunaannya sebagai popular kerana ia adalah beribu-ribu tahun yang lalu.

Rujukan :http://www.tribuneindia.com/2002/20020731/health.htm#4

 

Juzuk Phyto (Phyto constituents)
Terminalia chebula,  mengandungi beberapa phytoconstituents seperti tanin, flavonoid, sterol,amino asid, fruktosa, damar/resin dan 'fixed oil'.Kaya dengan tannin yang berbeza ,(anggaran kandungan 32%).
kandungan tanin Terminalia Chebula bergantung kepada lokasi geografi ia  tumbuh atau ditanam. komponen utama tanin adalah asid chebulic, asid chebulinic,asid chebulagic, asid Gallic, corilagin dan ellagic asid.Fitokimia seperti anthraquinones, ethaedioic asid, sennoside,4,2,4 chebulyl-d glucopyranose,terpinenes dan terpinenols juga  wujud. Kajian terbaru menunjukkan T. chebula mengandungi lebih phenolic berbanding tumbuhan yang lain.

 

Pelbagai tanin dan alkaloid dijumpai di dalam Terminalia chebula yang mempunyai banyak kegunaan serta berpotensi dalam bidang perubatan. Terdapat hepatoprotective, anti-neoplastic,immunosuppressive & a potent alphaglucosidase inhibitor  yang sangat berguna dalam kajian diabetes dan lain-lain.T.Chebula  turut aktif terhadap Staphylococcus aureus dan Candida albicans.

 

(T. chebula, though contains several phytoconstituents like tannins, flavonoids, sterols, amino acids, fructose, resin, fixed oils etc., however, it is fairly rich in different tannins (approximately 32% tannin content). Further, tannin content of T. chebula largely depends on its geographic location. The chief components of tannin are chebulic acid, chebulinic acid, chebulagic acid, gallic acid, corilagin and ellagic acid. [8] [Figure 5, 6, 7, 8] Phytochemicals like anthraquinones, ethaedioic acid, sennoside, 4,2,4 chebulyl-d glucopyranose, terpinenes and terpinenols have also been reported to be present.[9], [10] Recent studies shows that T. chebula contains more phenolics than any other plant. [11]immunosuppressive & a potent alphaglucosidase inhibitor, useful in diabetic studies etc. It has been shown to be active against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans.)

 

Aktiviti anti-bakteria
T. chebula bertindakbalas sebagai antibakteria terhadap pelbagai Gram positif, bakteria Gram negatif seperti Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis dan Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Turut memperrlihatkan aktiviti antimikrob spektrum yang luas. Kajian juga mendedahkan (inhibited) organisma gram positif menghalang kepada sejauh lebih besar berbanding dengan organisma gram negatif.

Gallic asid dan etil ester menunjukkan kesan methicillin resistant Staphylococcus.T. chebula baik/berkesan terhadap Helicobacter pylori, iaitu sejenis bakteria yang bertanggungjawab untuk gastritis, ulser perut dan kanser.T. ekstrak buah chebula mempunyai antibakteria yang kuat terhadap aktiviti bakteria usus, Clostridium perfingens dan Escherichia coli.

(T. chebula exhibited antibacterial activity against various Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria such as Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa suggesting its broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. [12], [13], [14], [15], [16] [17] [18] Another study revealed that gram positive organisms inhibited on larger extent as compare to gram negative organisms. [19] The gallic acid and ethyl ester showed effects methicillinresistant Staphylococcus. [20] T. chebula is well effective against Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium responsible for gastritis, ulcer and stomach cancers. [21] T. chebula fruit extract had strong antibacterial activity against intestinal bacteria, Clostridium perfingens and Escherichia coli [22])

 

Anti-amoebic & aktiviti anti-protozoal + Anti-Fungal

T. chebula menunjukkan aktiviti anti-amoebic terhadap Entamoeba histolytica dalam caecal eksperimen amoebiasis in vivo. Ekstrak aseton T.benih chebula menunjukkan aktiviti anti plasmodial terhadap Plasmodium falciparum. Aktiviti antikulat Cabutan akueus T. Chebula memperlihatkan aktiviti antikulat terhadap beberapa dermatophytes dan yis. Ia berkesan terhadap yis patogen Candida albicans dan dermatophytes Epidermophyton, Floccosum, Microsporum gypseum dan Trichophyton rubrum.

(Anti-amoebic & anti-protozoal activity- T. chebula showed anti-amoebic activity against Entamoeba histolytica in experimental caecal amoebiasis in vivo. [23] The acetone extract of T. chebula seeds showed anti plasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. [24] Antifungal activity An aqueous extract of T. chebula exhibited antifungal activity against a number of dermatophytes and yeasts. It is effective against the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans and dermatophytes Epidermophyton, Floccosum, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton rubrum. [25], [26], [27], [28])

 

Antivirus
Ekstrak buah-buahan T. chebula menunjukkan kesan yg melarang pada human immunodeficiency
virus-1 transcriptase terbalik. [29], [30] Satu kajian membuktikan bahawa T. buah-buahan chebula mengandungi empat antibodi manusia-HIV jenis-1 integrase inhibitor seperti asid Gallic dan tiga glucoses galloyl, dan mencadangkan bahawa galloyl moiety mempunyai peranan utama untuk perencatan 3'

-pemprosesan HIV-1 integrase dengan kedua-sebatian. [31], [32] Ekstrak akueus T.chebula dilaksanakan Anti-HBV yang paling menonjol ,ialah aktiviti  mengurangkan tahap sel HBV virion DNA pada kepekatan yang terdiri daripada 64
kepada 128 μg. [33] Dua tanin hydrolyzable, asid chebulagic dan punicalagin, terpencil dari buah-buahan kering T. chebula menghalang HSV-1 penyertaan di dos bukan sitotoksik dalam sel-sel paru-paru manusia dengan
mencegah pengikatan, penembusan, dan sel-sel penyebaran, serta jangkitan sekunder.

 

Immuno-modulatory activity

Ekstrak akueus T. chebula menghasilkan peningkatan pada humoral titer antibodi dan menunda hipersensitiviti pada tikus. [36] Ekstrak mentah daripada T. chebula merangsang sel imun pengantara yang bertindak balas dalam eksperimen hati bernanah amuba (amoebic liver abscess) yang diuji  keatas hamster emas. [37] T. chebula didapati berkesan terhadap perkembangan akhir glycation maju produk yang disebabkan oleh sel endothelia disfungsi [38]

(advanced glycation end products induced endothelia cell dysfunction).

(Aqueous extract of T. chebula produced an increase in humoral antibody titer and delayed type hypersensitivity in mice. [36] Crude extract of T. chebula stimulated cell mediated immune response in experimental amoebic liver abscess in golden hamsters. [37] T. chebula found effective against the progression of advanced glycation end products induced endothelia cell dysfunction[38])

 

Anti-neoplastic activity

Ekstrak ethanolic buah T.Chebula menghalang percambahan sel, disebabkan kematian sel dalam beberapa
bahagian sel malignan daripada manusia (MCF-7, HOS-1, PC-3,PNT1A) dan tetikus (S115). [39] Dalam kajian yang lain,
Ekstrak aseton kulit kayu dan buah-buahan serbuk T.chebula mempamerkan aktiviti anti-karsinogenik. [40] Dalam semua bahagian sel kajian, ekstrak sel menurunkan daya maju, menghalang percambahan sel , dan merangsang
sel mati dengan cara yang bergantung kepada dos. [41] (induced cell death in a dose dependent manner)

(Ethanolic extract of fruit inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell death in several malignant cell lines of human (MCF-7, HOS-1, PC-3, PNT1A) and mouse (S115). [39] In another study, Acetone extract of bark and fruit powder of T. chebula exhibit anti-carcinogenic activity. [40] In all cell lines studies, the extract decreased cell viability, inhibited cell proliferation, and induced cell death in a dose dependent manner. [41])

 

Anti Oxidant Activity

T. chebula mempamerkan pengoksidaan anti-lipid, antisuperoxide pembentukan radikal dan radikal bebas
aktiviti memerangkap. [42], [43], [44], [45] in vitro penilaian T. chebula menunjukkan bahawa tri-etil chebulate adalah antioksidan yang kuat dan radikal bebas penyapu jalan, yang mungkin menyumbang kepada antioksida yang
keupayaan. [46] Ekstrak akueus T.chebula seolah-olah dapat untuk melindungi organel sel dari radioterapi yang menyebabkan kerosakan.

(T. chebula shows that tri-ethyl chebulate is a strong antioxidant and free-radical scavenger, which might contribute to the antioxidative ability. [46] The aqueous extract of T. chebula seems to be able to protect cell organelles from radiotherapy induced damages.)

 

Antidiabetic

Ekstrak metanol & ekstrak kloroform T.chebula mengurangkan tahap gula dalam darah yang normal
dan terbukti dengan ujikaji terhadap tikus kencing manis Alloxan dengan ketara. [48], [49] T.buah chebula dan biji juga mempamerkan dos pengurangan bergantung glukosa darah streptozotocin disebabkan tikus diabetik kedua-dua ,kajian jangka pendek dan kajian jangka panjang. [50], [51]

(Methanolic extract & chloroform extract of T. chebula reduced the blood sugar level in normal and alloxan diabetic rats significantly. [48], [49] T. chebula fruit and seeds also exhibited dose dependent reduction in blood glucose of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats both in short term and long term study. [50], [51])

 

Hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic Activity

Ekstrak chebula T. menunjukkan aktiviti hypolipidemic terhadap athersclerosis uji kaji teraruh & kolesterol yang disebabkan hiperkolesterolemia dalam arnab. [52], [53], [54], [55], [56] Triphala (T. Chebula, T.Belerica, E. Officinalis) penggubalan didapati mempunyai kesan hypolipidaemic pada uji kaji disebabkan tikus hypercholesteremic. [57], The Vara Asanadi Kwath (Poly merebus herba) menunjukkan pengurangan ketara dalam hyper-lipidemia lemak tinggi
diet yang disebabkan tikus hyperlipidemic. [58]

(T. chebula extract showed Hypolipidemic activity against experimentally induced athersclerosis & cholesterol-induced hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. [52], [53], [54], [55], [56] Triphala (T. Chebula, T. Belerica, E. Officinalis) formulation was found to have hypolipidaemic effects on the experimentally induced hypercholesteremic rats. [57], The Vara Asanadi Kwath (Poly herbal decoction) showed significant reduction in hyper-lipidemia in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rats. [58])

 

Cardioprotective Activity

Kesan cardioprotective ekstrak ethanolic T.buah-buahan chebula ditunjukkan dalam isoproterenol yang disebabkan oleh kerosakan miokardium pada tikus. Ia telah didokumenkan bahawa rawatan pra dengan T. chebula Ekstrak mempunyai kesan cardioprotective. [59], [60], [61]
Perikarpa T. chebula juga telah ditunjukkan cardioprotective aktiviti di terpencil model katak jantung. [62]

(Cardioprotective effect of ethanolic extract of T. chebula fruits was demonstrated in isoproterenol induced myocardial damage in rats. It was documented that pre treatment with T. chebula extract had cardioprotective effect. [59], [60], [61] Pericarp of T. chebula has also been shown cardioprotective activity in isolated frog heart model. [62])

 

Anti-Arthritic Activity

Ekstrak hydroalcoholic T. Chebula menghasilkan perencatan yang ketara terhadap bengkak sendi
berbanding dengan kawalan dalam kedua-dua formaldehydeinduced dan CFA yang disebabkan oleh artritis. T. chebula boleh digunakan sebagai agen penyakit-mengubahsuai rawatan artritis reumatoid. [84] Kajian menunjukkan
bahawa ekstrak aseton T. buah-buahan chebula yang berkesan mengawal CFA artritis yang disebabkan
kesan yang jelas dalam mengurangkan keradangan komponen. [85] ekstrak akueus buah-buahan kering T.
chebula menunjukkan anti-radang dengan menghalang sintesis oksida nitrik inducible. [86] asid Chebulagic
diekstrak daripada buah-buahan tender T. chebula ketara ditindas permulaan dan perkembangan
kolagen yang disebabkan oleh artritis pada tikus. T. Chebula dalam penggubalan polyherbal (Aller-7)

mempamerkan kesan antiinflammatory artritis pada tikus. [87]

(The hydroalcoholic extract of T. chebula produceda significant inhibition of joint swelling ascompared to control in both formaldehydeinducedand CFA-induced arthritis. T. chebulacould be used as a disease-modifying agent intreatment of rheumatoid arthritis. [84] Study showsthat acetone extract of T. chebula fruits have bettereffect on controlling CFA induced arthritis showingthe definite effect in reducing the inflammatorycomponents. [85] Aqueous extract of dried fruit of T.chebula showed anti-inflammatory by inhibitinginducible nitric oxide synthesis. [86] Chebulagic acidextracted from tender fruit of T. chebulasignificantly suppressed the onset and progressionof collagen induced arthritis in mice. T. chebula in apolyherbal formulation (Aller-7) exhibited antiinflammatoryeffect against arthritis in rats. [87])

 

Gastro Enteric Activity

T. chebula berpotensi menukar aktiviti antiulcerogenic dalam etanol & kekangan sejuk tekanan yang disebabkan ulser dalam tikus. [88] pentadbiran intragastric dadah mentah kepada tikus, pada dos 1.5 g / l 15
hari, mengurangkan jumlah ulcerations gastrik disebabkan oleh pentagastrin dan carbachol. [89] The
ekstrak metanol T. chebula menunjukkan jumlah ketara pengurangan dalam jumlah gastrik, keasidan percuma & ulser indeks dalam ligation pilorus dan etanol yang disebabkan ulser tikus Wistar model. [90] Dalam satu kajian di Charleterhadap tikus, didapati bahawa T. chebula meningkatkan peratus pengosongan gastrik mencadangkan kegunaannya sebagai alternatif kepada ubat-ubatan prokinetic terdapat hari ini.
[91] Satu kajian menunjukkan tindakan pencahar minyak yang diperolehi daripada T. chebula.

(T. chebula displaced potential antiulcerogenic activity in ethanol & cold restraint stress inducedulcer method in rat. [88] Intragastric administration of the crude drug to rats, at a dose of 1.5 g/l for 15days, reduced the number of gastric ulcerationsinduced by pentagastrin and carbachol. [89] Themethanolic extract of T. chebula showed significantreduction in gastric volume, free acidity & ulcerindex in pylorus ligation and ethanol induced ulcermodel wistar rats. [90] In a study on Charles fosterrats, it was found that T. chebula increases thepercent gastric emptying suggesting its usefulnessas alternative to prokinetic drugs available today.[91] A study showed Purgative action of an oilobtained from T. chebula)

 

Hepatoprotective Activity

Ekstrak ethanolic T. buah chebula menunjukkan aktiviti hepatoprotective yg kuat. [63] Ia juga menunjukkan
kesan yang sama terhadap ubat anti-batuk kering Rifampicin, Isoniazid dan Pyrazinamide (gabungan) disebabkan keracunan kerana sifat anti-pengoksidaan dan aktiviti membran stabil. [64] Kesan perlindungan daripada
ekstrak akueus T. buah chebula pada tert-butil hidroperohsida yang disebabkan kecederaan oksidatif adalah
diperhatikan dalam hepatosit tikus rendah dan hati tikus juga telah didokumenkan. [65], [66]

(Ethanolic extract of T. chebula fruit showed stronghepatoprotective activity. [63] It also showedsimilar property against anti-tuberculosis drugRifampicin, Isoniazid and Pyrazinamide(combination) induced toxicity due to itsprominent anti-oxidative and membranestabilizing activities. [64] Protective effects of anaqueous extract of T. chebula fruit on the tert-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative injury wasobserved in cultured rat primary hepatocytes andrat liver has also been documented. [65], [66])

 

Antinociceptive activity

Ekstrak ethanolic T. buah-buahan chebula menunjukkan potensi ubat untuk bioaktiviti berpandukan pengasingan agen semula jadi analgesik dalam pengurusan sakit kronik. [67]
(The ethanolic extract of T. chebula fruits showed a potential drug for bioactivity-guided isolation of
natural analgesic agents in the management of chronic pain.)

 

Anti-anaphylactic activity

kajian terhadap haiwan menunjukkan bahawa apabila ekstrak T. chebula ditadbir berikut induksi kejutan anaphylactic, tahap serum histamine adalah dikurangkan, menunjukkan antianaphylactic yang kukuh tindakan. [68], [69] ekstrak akueus T.chebula menunjukkan kesan yang ketara semakin meningkat ke atas nekrosis tumor pengeluaran faktor-alpha dari tikus sel-sel mast peritoneal mewakili antianaphylactic yang kukuh tindakan. [69]
(Animal study show that when extract of T. chebula was administered following induction of anaphylactic shock, the serum histamine levels were reduced, indicating its strong antianaphylactic action. [68], [69] Aqueous extract of T.
chebula showed significant increasing effect on tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from rat peritoneal mast cells representing its strong antianaphylactic action. [69] 
chronic pain. [67]

 

Wound Healing Activity

Aktiviti penyembuhan luka  topikal ekstrak alkohol daripada daun T. chebula menyebabkan penyembuhan lebih cepat daripada tikus luka kulit dalam vivo. [70], [71], [72] Extracttreated luka insisi menunjukkan peningkatan tegangankekuatan tisu oleh kira-kira 40%. [61] Dalam Alloxan tikus diabetik disebabkan, ekstrak T. buah chebula mempamerkan pengurangan 82% di kawasan luka kerana epithelialization lebih cepat berbanding dengan kawalan. [73]Ekstrak buah Tender T. Chebula meningkatkan penyembuhan luka kulit pada tikus kerana kuatanti-bakteria dan aktiviti angiogenik. [74] Satu pesdisediakan daripada T. chebula & T. belerica menawarkan aktiviti penyembuhan luka. [75]
(Topical administration of alcoholic extract of the leaves of T. chebula caused much faster healing of
rat dermal wounds in vivo. [70], [71], [72] Extracttreated incision wounds showed increased tensile
strength of tissues by about 40%. [61] In alloxan induced diabetic rats, the extract of T. chebula fruit
exhibited 82% reduction in the wound area due to faster epithelialization compared to controls. [73]
Tender fruit extract of T. chebula promoted cutaneous wound healing in rats due to a powerful
anti-bacterial and angiogenic activity. [74] A paste prepared from T. chebula & T. belerica offers adistinctive on wound healing activity. [75] )

 

Radio Protective & Chemo Modulatory Activity

T. ekstrak chebula dalam dos 80 mg / kg berat badan sebelum penyinaran seluruh badan tikus mengakibatkan
pengurangan pengoksidaan lipid membran dalam hati dan penurunan radiasi kerosakan kepada DNA. Ekstrak chebula [76] T. juga melindungi limfosit manusia dari menjalani kerosakan sinaran gamma teraruh
DNA terdedah dalam vitro untuk gamma-radiasi. [76], [77] T. ekstrak chebula boleh digunakan sebagai terapi
ejen bagi pencegahan kanser kerana ia disekat atau ditindas peristiwa-peristiwa yang berkaitan dengan kimia
karsinogenesis. [78] Kajian ini menunjukkan radioprotective kesan ekstrak akueus Triphala dalam tikus yang terdedah kepada radiasi gamma dengan kadar yang tertinggi utk hidup (survivals). [79]

(T. chebula extract in dose of 80 mg/kg body weightprior to whole body irradiation of mice resulted inreduction of peroxidation of membrane lipids inthe liver and decrease in radiation-induceddamage to DNA. [76] T. chebula extract alsoprotected the human lymphocytes fromundergoing the gamma radiation induced damage to DNA exposed in vitro to gamma-radiation. [76],[77] T. chebula extract could be used as therapeuticagent for cancer prevention as it blocked orsuppressed the events associated with chemicalcarcinogenesis. [78] The study showed radioprotectiveeffect of aqueous extract of Triphala inmice exposed to gamma radiations with highestnumber of survivals. [79])

 

Cytoprotective activity

Asid Gallic dan asid chebulagic, diasingkan daripada buah-buahan ekstrak T. chebula, disekat sitotoksik Tlimfosit (CTL) -mediated Cyto-ketoksikan. [80], [81]Jangka hayat sel-sel HEK-N / F telah memanjang dengan 40% dalam UVB yang disebabkan oleh kerosakan oksidatif mempamerkan kesan cytoprotective. [82] Ia mempamerkan pembangunan ulser duodenum dan kelihatan mengenakan kesan cytoprotective pada mukosa perutin vivo [83]
(Gallic acid and chebulagic acid, isolated from fruit extract of T. chebula, blocked cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated cyto-toxicity. [80], [81] The life-span of HEK-N/F cells was elongated by 40% in UVB-induced oxidative damage exhibiting cytoprotective effect. [82] It exhibited the development of duodenal ulcers and appeared to
exert a cytoprotective effect on the gastric mucosa in vivo [83]

 

Anti-allergic activity

Aktiviti anti-alahan T. chebula, bahan formulasi herba poli(Aller-7), menunjukkan kuat dalam vitro anti-alahan aktiviti. [87] ekstrak Hydro-etanol T. chebula mempamerkan antihistamin dan antispasmodic dalam Guinea pig usus kecil. [93] Pentadbiran lisan akueus yang ekstrak buah-buahan ditindas ketara histamine pelepasan daripada tikus sel-sel mast peritoneal [94] dan juga pengeluaran meningkat dengan ketara tumor faktor nekrosis (TNF) dengan

anti-dinitrophenyl IgE. [95]
(T. chebula, ingredient of a poly herbal formulation (Aller-7), showed potent in vitro anti-allergic activity. [87] Hydro-ethanol extract of T. chebula exhibit antihistamine and antispasmodic in guinea-pig ileum. [93] Oral administration of an aqueous extract of fruit significantly suppressed histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells [94] and also
significantly increased production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) by anti-dinitrophenyl IgE. [95]

 

Antiplasmodial activity

Ekstrak air T. chebula menunjukkan antiplasmodialaktiviti in vitro dalam pelbagai dadah tahan terikan Plasmodium falciparum [96] dan in vivo kajian T. benih chebula ekstrak Aseton menunjukkan aktiviti anti-plasmodial dalam kajian. [24]
(The water extract of T. chebula showed antiplasmodial activity in vitro in multidrug-resistant
strain of Plasmodium falciparum [96] and in vivo study of T. chebula seed Acetone extract showed anti-plasmodial activity in a study. [24]

 

Anti-Helminthic

Ekstrak daun kering dan biji T. chebula menunjukkan perencatan lengkap dengan ovicidal dan aktiviti larvicidal dalam aseton dan etanol etil ekstrak diuji dalam vitro. [97]

(The extracts of dried leaves and seeds of T. chebula showed complete inhibition by ovicidal and larvicidal activities in ethyl acetone and ethanolextracts tested in vitro. [97]

 

Anticaries Activity

Ekstrak akueus T. Chebula kuat menghalang pertumbuhan, sukrosa disebabkan pematuhan dan glucan pengagregatan disebabkan Streptococcus mutan. Mulut membilas dengan penyelesaian 10% daripada
ekstrak menghalang kiraan bakteria air liur dan glikolisis bakteria air liur sehingga 90 min selepas membilas.

[98], [99], [100]
(The aqueous extract of T. chebula strongly inhibited the growth, sucrose induced adherence and glucan induced aggregation of Streptococcus mutants. Mouth rinsing with a 10 % solution of the extract inhibited the salivary bacterial count and glycolysis of salivary bacteria for up to 90 min post rinsing. [98], [99], [100] )

 

Nephroprotective effect

Ekstrak buah T. chebula membantu untuk mengurangkan kadmium yang disebabkan nephrotoxicity pada tikus. [101] The Vara Asanadi Kwath (merebus) menunjukkan pengurangan ketara dalam hyper-lipidemia lemak tinggi diet yang disebabkan tikus hyperlipidemic. [58]
(The fruit extract of T. chebula is helpful to alleviate the cadmium induced nephrotoxicity in rats. [101]
The Vara Asanadi Kwath (decoction) showed.)

 

 

Anti-Spermatogenic Activity

Ekstrak ethanolic kulit T. chebula menunjukkan perubahan histologi dalam tubul seminiferous dalam testis tikus di dos 300 mg / kg bw selama 28 hari. Tahap asid sialik dalam epididimis dan fruktosa dalam vesicle mani telah kurang dengan ketara dalam ekstrak dirawat berair tikus berbanding kawalan. [102] tikus jantan dirawat dengan T. buah chebula diberi 100mg / dos kg menunjukkan ketara penurunan motilitas, mengira dan bertambah keabnormalan morfologi dalam spermatozoa. [103]
(The oral administration of ethanolic extract of bark of T. chebula showed histological alterations in seminiferous tubules in testes of mice at dose of 300 mg/kg bw for 28 days. The level of sialic acid in the epididymis and that of fructose in the seminal vesicle were significantly reduced in aqueous extract-treated mice compared to controls. [102] male rats treated with T. chebula fruit.)

 

Toxicology & Drug interaction

Kajian pemakanan buah kepada tikus,25% diet, luka-luka yang dihasilkan hepatik yang disertakan keabnormalan urat Centri-lobular dan Centri-lobular kesesakan sinus. Buah pinggang yang ketara luka-luka juga diperhatikan, dan termasuk ditanda degenerasi tiub, tiub dan acuan intertubular kesesakan. A pigmentasi coklat daripada
ekor dan kaki juga diperhatikan selepas 10 hari. [104]Dos median maut ekstrak etanol 50% daripada buah adalah 175,0 mg / kg bw selepas intra peritoneal pentadbiran. Kajian ketoksikan [105] akut dijalankan pada tikus dengan ekstrak air kering buah T. Chebula pada dos tunggal 5000mg / kg bw tidak menunjukkan sebarang tanda-tanda keracunan. [106] manakala kajian yang dijalankan pada tikus menunjukkan dos> 3gm / kg bw ditemui maut. [107] Sekiranya keracunan kronik kajian untuk 270 hari tikus betina menurunkan sebarang perbezaan yang signifikan dalam berat badan. Walau bagaimanapun tikus jantan ketara menunjukkan penurunan kecil dalam berat badan. Dalam tempoh keseluruhan kajian, ada tanda-tanda morbiditi & penyakit dilihat. [106]


Nilai hematologi mencadangkan bahawa ekstrak lakukan tidak menyebabkan apa-apa kecacatan dalam tikus. [108] Pada kimia pemeriksaan darah menunjukkan perubahan kecil tetapi dalam julat normal. [109], [110] Dalam satu lagi lisan kajian ketoksikan, dos oral tunggal ekstrak pada kadar 2000 mg / kg tidak menghasilkan kematian atau
luka-luka yang tidak normal dalam organ-organ dalaman tikus. [111] Satu laporan menerangkan dua berulang kemurungan dalam Pesakit dikawal dengan baik dengan Certraline selepas memulakan campuran herba Ayurveda mengandungi T.chebula. [112] Juga sama seperti gabungan acetaminophen dan alkohol boleh memberi kekuasaan
hepatoksisiti begitu juga T. Chebula buah-buahan boleh membuat gabungan hepatotoxic apabila menjalani
metabolisme dengan tetracycline, erythromycin atau chlorpromazine. [113]

 

(Dietary administration of the fruit to rats, as 25%of the diet, produced hepatic lesions whichi ncluded centri-lobular

vein abnormalities andcentri-lobular sinusoidal congestion. Marked renal lesions were also observed, and included markedtubular degeneration, tubular casts and intertubularcongestion. A brown pigmentation of thetail and limbs was also observed after 10 days. [104]The median lethal dose of a 50% ethanol extract ofthe fruit was 175.0 mg/kg bw after intraperitonealadministration. [105] Acute toxicity studyconducted in rats with water extracts of driedfruits of T. chebula at single dose of 5000mg/kg bwdid not show any toxicity signs. [106] whereasstudies conducted in mice shows the dose of >3gm/kg bw found lethal. [107] In chronic toxicitystudy for 270 days female rats revealed nosignificant difference in weight gain.

 

However malerats significantly showed slight decrease in bodyweight & body weight gain. In the entire period ofstudy, no sign of morbidity & disease seen. [106]Hematological values suggest that the extract didnot cause any defects in rat. [108] On chemicalexamination of blood reveals minor changes butwithin normal range. [109], [110] In another oraltoxicity study, the single oral dose of the extract at2000 mg/kg did not produce mortality orabnormal lesions in the internal organs of rats. [111]A report describes two relapse of depression inpatient well controlled with Certraline afterstarting an ayurvedic herbal mixture containing T.chebula. [112] Also just like combination ofacetaminophen and alcohol can potentiatehepatotoxicity so too T. chebula fruits can createhepatotoxic combination when undergometabolism with tetracycline, erythromycin orchlorpromazine. [113] extract at 100mg/kg dose showed significant decrease in motility, count and increase in
morphological abnormalities in sp significant reduction in hyper-lipidemia in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rats. [58]

 

 

Haritaki (Terminalia chebula)


 

      Interactions


      Haritaki/Drug Interactions:

  • Antibiotics : Based on in vitro studies, extracts of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia chebula Retz., and Triphala (a combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis) may have antibacterial activity against several bacterial isolates, including various species of Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Clostridium, Shigella, Staphylococcus (including beta-lactamase-producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), Vibrio, Salmonella (including multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhi), Escherichia, Enterobacteria, Corynebacteria, Enterococcus, Bacillus, Proteus, and Helicobacter pylori (23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 6). The effects of haritaki and antibiotics are not well understood.

  •  

  • Antidiabetic agentsAntidiabetic agents: Based on animal studies, extracts of seeds and fruit of Terminalia chebula may reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic rats (16; 17; 18; 19). Theoretically, concurrent use of haritaki and antidiabetic agents may cause added blood sugar lowering.

  • Antifungal agentsAntifungal agents: Based on in vitro studies, extracts of Terminalia chebula may inhibit the growth of Trichophyton species, Candida species (including clotrimazole-resistant Candida albicans), Aspergillus species, and Torulopsis glabrata (33; 34; 31).

  •  

  • Anti-inflammatory agentsAnti-inflammatory agents: Based on a study of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages, Padma 28 (a mixture of herbs that includes Terminalia chebula) may induce a concentration-dependent inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis (4).

  • Antilipemic agentsAntilipemic agents: Based on animal studies, Triphala (a combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis) may reduce total cholesterol, total triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein, and free fatty acid levels and increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in hypercholesteremic or hyperlipidemic rats (35; 36).

  •  

  • Antineoplastic agentsAntineoplastic agents: Based on an in vitro study, a 70% methanol extract of Terminalia chebula fruit may decrease cell viability, inhibit cell proliferation, and induce cell death in a dose-dependent manner in several malignant cell lines (37). Based on animal study, Terminalia chebula may prevent ferric nitrilotriacetic acid (Fe- NTA)-induced renal tumorigenesis in Wistar rats (38), and Triphala (a combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis) may reduce benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach papillomagenesis in mice (39).

  •  

  • Antiviral agentsAntiviral agents: Based on in vitro studies, extracts of Terminalia chebula may inhibit human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase (40), and Terminalia chebula and Ledretan-96 (an herbal formula containing Terminalia chebula) may protect against damage caused by influenza A virus (3). Based on animal studies, Terminalia chebula may inhibit replication of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and murine CMV (MCMV) in MCMV infection models of immunosuppressed mice (41; 42), and the combination of acyclovir with Terminalia chebula Retz. may have strong therapeutic anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 activity in mice (43).

  • Cardiovascular drugsCardiovascular drugs: Based on a study in rats, pretreatment with Terminalia chebula extract (500mg/kg) may ameliorate the effect of isoproterenol (200mg/kg)-induced myocardial damage (44).

  • Gastrointestinal agentsGastrointestinal agents: Based on an animal studies, Terminalia chebula may accelerate the healing of indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration in rats (45) and, at a dose of 100mg/kg daily for 15 days orally, increased the percentage of gastric emptying (compared with metoclopramide, a prokinetic drug) (46). Based on a study in rats with duodenal ulcers, a mixture of Ayurvedic medicines that included Terminalia chebula (with Glycyrrhiza glabra, Piper longum, and Shanka bhasma) may increase the activity of beta-glucuronidase activity in the Brunner's glands (47).

  •  

  • Hepatotoxic agentsHepatotoxic agents: Based on animal studies, a 95% ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula fruit may prevent hepatotoxicity caused by rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide (given in combination) in a subchronic mode (12 weeks) (10). Based on studies in rats, treatment and pretreatment of cultured rat primary hepatocytes with an aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula fruit or with HP-1 (an herbal formulation containing Terminalia chebula) may reverse tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced cell cytotoxicity and lactate dehydrogenase leakage and lower serum levels of liver enzymes (48; 49; 2).

  • SertralineSertraline: Based on a case report, an herbal mixture containing Terminalia chebula may be responsible for decreasing the therapeutic efficacy of sertraline, leading to two relapses of depression (50).


       Haritaki/Herb/Supplement Interactions:

  • AntibacterialsAntibacterials: Based on in vitro studies, extracts of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia chebula Retz., and Triphala (a combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis) may have antibacterial activity against several bacterial isolates, including various species of Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Clostridium, Shigella, Staphylococcus (including beta-lactamase-producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), Vibrio, Salmonella (including multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhi), Escherichia, Enterobacteria, Corynebacteria, Enterococcus, Bacillus, Proteus, and Helicobacter pylori (23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32; 6). The effects of haritaki and antibacterial agents are not well understood.

  •  

  • AntifungalsAntifungals: Based on in vitro studies, extracts of Terminalia chebula may inhibit the growth of Trichophyton species, Candida species (including Clotrimazole-resistant Candida albicans), Aspergillus species, and Torulopsis glabrata (33; 34; 31).

  •  

  • Anti-inflammatory herbsAnti-inflammatory herbs: Based on a study of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages, Padma 28 (a mixture of herbs that includes Terminalia chebula) may induce a concentration-dependent inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis (4).

  •  

  • Antilipemic agentsAntilipemic agents: Based on animal studies, Triphala (a combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis) may reduce total cholesterol, total triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein, and free fatty acid levels and increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in hypercholesteremic or hyperlipidemic rats (35; 36).

  •  

  • AntioxidantsAntioxidants: Based on in vitro and animal studies, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia chebula Retz., and Triphala (a combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis) may have free radical-scavenging activities, as well as antilipid peroxidation and antisuperoxide radical formation (51; 52; 53; 54; 55; 39; 56; 49; 57). Based on an in vitro study, Aller-7® (a combination of Terminalia chebula and six other herbs) may have concentration-dependent scavenging activities toward biochemically generated hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion, nitric oxide, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, and 2,2-azinobis-ethyl-benzothiozoline-sulphonic acid diammonium salt radical, and it may also inhibit free radical-induced hemolysis (58).

  •  

  • AntineoplasticsAntineoplastics: Based on an in vitro study, a 70% methanol extract of Terminalia chebula fruit may decrease cell viability, inhibit cell proliferation, and induce cell death in a dose-dependent manner in several malignant cell lines (37). Terminalia chebula may prevent ferric nitrilotriacetic acid (Fe- NTA)-induced renal tumorigenesis in Wistar rats (38), and Triphala (a combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis) may reduce benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach papillomagenesis in mice (39).

  • AntiviralsAntivirals: Based on in vitro studies, extracts of Terminalia chebula may inhibit human

  •  

  • immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase (40), and Terminalia chebula and Ledretan-96 (an herbal formula containing Terminalia chebula) may protect against damage caused by influenza A virus (3). Based on animal studies, Terminalia chebula may inhibit replication of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and murine CMV (MCMV) in MCMV infection models of immunosuppressed mice (41; 42), and the combination of acyclovir with Terminalia chebula Retz. may have strong therapeutic anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 activity in mice (43).

  • Cardiovascular herbs and supplementsCardiovascular herbs and supplements: Based on a study in rats, pretreatment with Terminalia chebula extract (500mg/kg) may ameliorate the effect of isoproterenol (200 mg/kg)-induced myocardial damage (44).

  •  

  • Gastrointestinal herbs and supplementsGastrointestinal herbs and supplements: Based on an animal studies, Terminalia chebula may accelerate the healing of indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration in rats (45) and, at a dose of 100mg/kg daily for 15 days orally, increase the percentage of gastric emptying (compared with metoclopramide, a prokinetic drug) (46). Based on a study in rats with duodenal ulcers, a mixture of Ayurvedic medicines that included Terminalia chebula (with Glycyrrhiza glabra, Piper longum, and Shanka bhasma) may increase the activity of beta-glucuronidase activity in the Brunner's glands (47).

  •  

  • Hepatotoxic herbsHepatotoxic herbs: Based on animal studies, a 95% ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula fruit may prevent hepatotoxicity caused by rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide (given in combination) in a subchronic mode (12 weeks) (10). Based on studies in rats, treatment and pretreatment of cultured rat primary hepatocytes with an aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula fruit or with HP-1 (an herbal formulation containing Terminalia chebula) may reverse tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced cell cytotoxicity and lactate dehydrogenase leakage and significantly lower serum levels of liver enzymes (48; 49; 2).

  • HypoglycemicsHypoglycemics: Based on animal studies, extracts of seeds and fruit of Terminalia chebula may reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic rats (16; 17; 18; 19).


      Haritaki/Food Interactions:

  • Insufficient available evidence.


       Haritaki/Lab Interactions:

  • Antibody titersAntibody titers: Based on animal study, an aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula fruit may increase humoral antibody titer and delayed-type hypersensitivity in mice (13).

  •  

  • Beta-glucuronidase activityBeta-glucuronidase activity: Based on animal study, a mixture of Ayurvedic medicines that included Terminalia chebula (with Glycyrrhiza glabra, Piper longum, and Shanka bhasma) may increase the activity of beta-glucuronidase activity in the Brunner's glands of rats with duodenal ulcers (47).

  • Blood glucoseBlood glucose: Based on animal study, extracts of seeds and fruit of Terminalia chebula may result in reduction in blood glucose levels in diabetic rats (16; 17; 18; 19). Based on animal study, Terminalia chebula at a dose of 200mg/kg may produce a decrease in the oral glucose tolerance test in diabetic rats (17).

  • Blood urea nitrogen levelsBlood urea nitrogen levels: Based on animal study, treatment of rats with Terminalia chebula (25mg/kg and 50mg/kg daily) for one week before administration of nickel chloride (Ni 250mcM/kg) may lead to downregulation of serum blood urea nitrogen (59).

  •  

  • Collagen levelsCollagen levels: Based on animal study, a topical ointment prepared from alcohol extract of Triphala (a combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis), at a concentration of 10% w/w, may increase the level of collagen in infected rat wound-healing models (60; 61).

  • Corticosterone levelsCorticosterone levels: Based on animal study, oral administration of Triphala (a combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis), at a dose of 1g/kg for 48 days, may prevent increases in corticosterone levels induced by cold stress (8°C for 16 hours per day for 15 days) in albino rats (5). The same dose may prevent increases in corticosterone levels induced by noise stress (100dB for four hours per day for 15 days) (56).

  •  

  • CreatinineCreatinine: Based on animal study, treatment of rats with Terminalia chebula (25mg/kg and 50mg/kg daily) for one week before administration of nickel chloride (Ni 250mcM/kg) may lead to downregulation of serum creatinine (59).

  •  

  • Glutathione contentGlutathione content: Based on animal study, Terminalia chebula (25mg/kg and 50mg/kg daily) for one week before administration of nickel chloride (Ni 250mcM/kg) may lead to downregulation of glutathione content, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione reductase (59).

  • Hemoglobin A1c levelsHemoglobin A1c levels: Based on animal study, extracts of seeds and fruit of Terminalia chebula may result in reduction of hemoglobin A1c levels in diabetic rats (17; 18).

  •  

  • Hexosamine levelsHexosamine levels: Based on animal study, a topical ointment prepared from alcohol extract of Triphala (a combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis), at a concentration of 10% w/w, may increase the level of hexosamine in infected rat wound-healing models (60; 61).

  • Lipid profileLipid profile: Based on animal study, Triphala (a combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis) may reduce total cholesterol, total triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein, and free fatty acid levels and may increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in hypercholesteremic or hyperlipidemic rats (35; 36).

  •  

  • Liver function testsLiver function tests: Based on in vitro research, treatment and pretreatment of cultured rat primary hepatocytes with an aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula fruit or with HP-1 (an herbal formulation containing Terminalia chebula) may reverse tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced cell cytotoxicity and lactate dehydrogenase leakage and lower the serum levels of liver enzymes (48; 49; 2).

  • Neutrophil functionNeutrophil function: Based on animal study, oral administration of Triphala (a combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis), at a dose of 1g/kg daily for 48 days, may stimulate neutrophil function and prevent stress-induced suppression in neutrophil function in immunized rats (62).

  •  

  • Nitric oxide synthesisNitric oxide synthesis: Based on in vitro research, in a study of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages, Padma 28 (a mixture of herbs that includes Terminalia chebula) may induce a concentration-dependent inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis (4).

  • Superoxide dismutase levelsSuperoxide dismutase levels: Based on animal study, a topical ointment prepared from alcohol extract of Triphala (a combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis), at a concentration of 10% w/w, may increase the level of superoxide dismutase in infected rat wound-healing models (60).

  •  

  • Uronic acid levelsUronic acid levels: Based on animal study, a topical ointment prepared from alcohol extract of Triphala (a combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, and Emblica officinalis), at a concentration of 10% w/w, may increase the level of uronic acid in infected rat wound-healing models (60; 61). 

  •  

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